Sun = Latin, Sol (Solar system)
The Sun is the star at the center of our Solar System.
(A star is an astronomical object consisting of a luminous sphere of plasma held together by its own gravity. The nearest star to Earth is the Sun.)
Our sun offers us most most important source of energy for life on Earth.
Thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium in its core, releasing energy that radiates into outer space. Our Sun star is composed of roughly 73% hydrogen and 25% helium with much smaller quantities of heavier elements, including oxygen, carbon, neon, and iron.
Size – diameter approx. 1.39 million kilometers(864,000 miles), or 109 times that of Earth, and its mass is about 330,000 times that of Earth.
It accounts for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System. The Sun, which comprises nearly all the matter in the Solar System,
It formed approximately 4.6 billion years ago the same way as all stars form: (from the gravitational collapse of matter.
The Sun is roughly middle-aged. It will remain fairly stable for more than another five billion years.
When hydrogen fusion in its core diminishes, its core will become more dense while its outer layers expand to eventually become a red giant. It is calculated that the Sun will become sufficiently large to engulf the current orbits of Mercury and Venus, and render Earth uninhabitable. After this, it will shed its outer layers and become a dense type of cooling star known as a white dwarf, and no longer produce energy by fusion, but still glow and give off heat from its previous fusion.
Source of Suns light and heat
Nuclear Fusion. It currently fuses about 600 million tons of hydrogen into helium every second. This is the source of the Sun’s light and heat. In about 5 billion years
Light travels from the Sun’s horizon to Earth’s horizon in about 8 minutes and 19 seconds.
The energy of this sunlight supports almost all life on Earth by photosynthesis, and drives Earth’s climate and weather.
The enormous effect of the Sun on Earth has been recognized by humans through time
The rotation of Earth and its orbit around the Sun are the basis of solar calendars, like the one we use today – as opposed to Moon calendars.
Many ancient monuments were constructed with the sun in mind, for example Stonehenge, to mark the solstice, Machu Picchu, Peru, Temple of the Sun,
Worship of the Sun was central to civilizations such as the ancient Egyptians, the Inca of South America and the Aztecs of what is now Mexico.
In religions such as Hinduism, the Sun is still considered a god.
In Egypt the Sun was worshipped as the god Ra, portrayed as a falcon-headed divinity surmounted by the solar disk, and surrounded by a serpent.
Portrayed as being carried across the sky in a solar ship
The Sun became identified with the dung beetle, whose spherical ball of dung was identified with the Sun.
To the Greeks, he was Helios, carried by a chariot drawn by fiery horses. The Sun’s birthday was a holiday celebrated as Sol Invictus (literally “Unconquered Sun”) soon after the winter solstice, which may have been replaced by Christmas.
In ancient Greek religion, Helios was syncretized with Apollo.
The ancient Sumerians believed that the sun was Utu, the god of justice
Tonatiuh, the Aztec god of the sun, was depicted holding arrows and a shield and was closely associated with the practice of human sacrifice.
The sun goddess Amaterasu is the most important deity in the Shinto religion, and she is believed to be the direct ancestor of all Japanese emperors.
PAGAN and ROMAN
In ancient Roman culture, Sunday was the day of the sun god. It was adopted as the Sabbath day by Christians who did not have a Jewish background. The symbol of light was a pagan device adopted by Christians, and perhaps the most important one that did not come from Jewish traditions.
In paganism, the Sun was a source of life, giving warmth and illumination to mankind. Stand at dawn to catch the first rays of sunshine as they prayed. The celebration of the winter solstice (which influenced Christmas) was part of the Roman cult of the unconquered Sun (Sol Invictus). Christian churches were built with an orientation so that the congregation faced toward the sunrise in the East.
Old Norse Sól,